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Climate of the Past An interactive open-access journal of the European Geosciences Union
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Volume 12, issue 8 | Copyright
Clim. Past, 12, 1635-1644, 2016
https://doi.org/10.5194/cp-12-1635-2016
© Author(s) 2016. This work is distributed under
the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.

Research article 11 Aug 2016

Research article | 11 Aug 2016

Reconstructing geographical boundary conditions for palaeoclimate modelling during the Cenozoic

Michiel Baatsen1, Douwe J. J. van Hinsbergen2, Anna S. von der Heydt1, Henk A. Dijkstra1, Appy Sluijs2, Hemmo A. Abels3, and Peter K. Bijl2 Michiel Baatsen et al.
  • 1IMAU, Utrecht University, Princetonplein 5, 3584CC Utrecht, the Netherlands
  • 2Department of Earth Sciences, Utrecht University, Heidelberglaan 8, 3584 CS Utrecht, the Netherlands
  • 3Department of Geosciences and Engineering, Delft University of Technology, Stevinweg 1, 2628 CN Delft, the Netherlands

Abstract. Studies on the palaeoclimate and palaeoceanography using numerical model simulations may be considerably dependent on the implemented geographical reconstruction. Because building the palaeogeographic datasets for these models is often a time-consuming and elaborate exercise, palaeoclimate models frequently use reconstructions in which the latest state-of-the-art plate tectonic reconstructions, palaeotopography and -bathymetry, or vegetation have not yet been incorporated. In this paper, we therefore provide a new method to efficiently generate a global geographical reconstruction for the middle-late Eocene. The generalised procedure is also reusable to create reconstructions for other time slices within the Cenozoic, suitable for palaeoclimate modelling. We use a plate-tectonic model to make global masks containing the distribution of land, continental shelves, shallow basins and deep ocean. The use of depth-age relationships for oceanic crust together with adjusted present-day topography gives a first estimate of the global geography at a chosen time frame. This estimate subsequently needs manual editing of areas where existing geological data indicate that the altimetry has changed significantly over time. Certain generic changes (e.g. lowering mountain ranges) can be made relatively easily by defining a set of masks while other features may require a more specific treatment. Since the discussion regarding many of these regions is still ongoing, it is crucial to make it easy for changes to be incorporated without having to redo the entire procedure. In this manner, a complete reconstruction can be made that suffices as a boundary condition for numerical models with a limited effort. This facilitates the interaction between experts in geology and palaeoclimate modelling, keeping reconstructions up to date and improving the consistency between different studies. Moreover, it facilitates model inter-comparison studies and sensitivity tests regarding certain geographical features as newly generated boundary conditions can more easily be incorporated in different model simulations. The workflow is presented covering a middle-late Eocene reconstruction (38Ma), using a MatLab script and a complete set of source files that are provided in the supplementary material.

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One of the major difficulties in modelling palaeoclimate is constricting the boundary conditions, causing significant discrepancies between different studies. Here, a new method is presented to automate much of the process of generating the necessary geographical reconstructions. The latter can be made using various rotational frameworks and topography/bathymetry input, allowing for easy inter-comparisons and the incorporation of the latest insights from geoscientific research.
One of the major difficulties in modelling palaeoclimate is constricting the boundary...
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