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CP | Articles | Volume 15, issue 1
Clim. Past, 15, 73–90, 2019
https://doi.org/10.5194/cp-15-73-2019
© Author(s) 2019. This work is distributed under
the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.

Special issue: The 4.2 ka BP climatic event

Clim. Past, 15, 73–90, 2019
https://doi.org/10.5194/cp-15-73-2019
© Author(s) 2019. This work is distributed under
the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.

Research article 15 Jan 2019

Research article | 15 Jan 2019

Indian winter and summer monsoon strength over the 4.2 ka BP event in foraminifer isotope records from the Indus River delta in the Arabian Sea

Alena Giesche et al.
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Cited articles  
Agrawal, D. P.: The Indus Civilization: an interdisciplinary perspective, Aryan Books International, New Delhi, India, 2007. 
Ahmad, N., Mohammad, A., and Khan, S. T.: Country Report on Water resources of Pakistan, in: South Asia Water Balance Workshop, 30 April–2 May 2001, San Diego, California, USA, Hansen Institute for World Peace, 2001. 
Banse, K.: Overview of the hydrography and associated biological phenomena in the Arabian Sea off Pakistan, in Marine Geology and Oceanography of the Arabian Sea and Coastal Pakistan, edited by: Haq, B. U. and Milliman, J. D., Van Nostrand Reinhold, New York, USA, 273–301, 1984. 
Bar-Matthews, M. and Ayalon, A.: Mid-Holocene climate variations revealed by high-resolution speleothem records from Soreq Cave, Israel and their correlation with cultural changes, Holocene, 21, 163–171, 2011. 
Bar-Matthews, M., Ayalon, A., Gilmour, M., Matthews, A., and Hawkesworth, C. J.: Sea–land oxygen isotopic relationships from planktonic foraminifera and speleothems in the Eastern Mediterranean region and their implication for paleorainfall during interglacial intervals, Geochim. Cosmochim. Ac., 67, 3181–3199, 2003. 
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A foraminifer oxygen isotope record from the northeastern Arabian Sea was used to reconstruct winter and summer monsoon strength from 5.4 to 3.0 ka. We found a 200-year period of strengthened winter monsoon (4.5–4.3 ka) that coincides with the earliest phase of the Mature Harappan period of the Indus Civilization, followed by weakened winter and summer monsoons by 4.1 ka. Aridity spanning both rainfall seasons at 4.1 ka may help to explain some of the observed archaeological shifts.
A foraminifer oxygen isotope record from the northeastern Arabian Sea was used to reconstruct...
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